Internet GIS utilize network communications to disseminate or to access geographic information. Different Internet GIS applications may need different kind of network environments for their specific purposes. This chapters is to discuss the network infrastructures and hardware specifications for wired GIS and wireless Mobil GIS. It is aimed to help the reader to understand the concept of computing networking, the communication process between computers, and the differences between local area network and the Internet, and the differences in networking between desktop GIS in the local area network environments and the Internet GIS in the wide area network environments. It is these network technologies provide high-speed communication channels for publishing and accessing disseminating geographic information via networks.

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Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Computer Networking
2.1 Introduction to Network Environments

      2.1.1 traditional GISystems Solutions

      2.1.2 Internet GIServices Solutions

      2.1.3 Network Environments

2.2 Network Communication Models and Protocols

      2.2.1 The OSI Model

      2.2.2 Protocols

      2.2.3 TCP/IP

2.3 Information Exchange Process Between Two Computers

      2.3.1 Packet Components

      2.3.2 Information Flow Between Two Computers

2.4 Information Communications in Local Area Networks

      2.4.1 Components of Local Area Networks

      2.4.2 LAN Architectures

      2.4.3 FDDI

      2.4.4 Wireless LANs

2.5 Information Communications in Wide Area Networks

      2.5.1 Circuit-Switched WANs

      2.5.2 Packet-Switched WANs

2.6 The Internet and Future Development

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  • Internet2 (
    Internet2 is a consortium being led by 200 universities working in partnership with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies, accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet. The website is hosted by The University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), which is a nonprofit consortium. The website introduces studies in advanced applications, middleware, new networking capabilities, advanced networking infrastructure, etc. The applications initiatives cover the fields of health science, arts and humanities, digital video, geospatial processing, remote instrumentation, etc. Among that, Internet2 Glossary and Style Guide gives definitions and explanations of many advanced networking terms for beginners to start with; Information Kit provides documents and multimedia that users are interested in and capable to download; Internet2 Videospace presents net-accessible and high-performance video about Internet2.

  • NGI (Next Generation Internet) (
    The Next Generation Internet Program was initiated in 1996 and was successfully completed. The principal agencies involved in this initiative are the National Science Foundation, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, NASA, and the National Institutes of Health. Other agencies may be involved in promoting specific applications related to their missions. There was about $100 million fund allocated for R&D and research networks to develop the Next Generation Internet. The Three major goals of this program was to connect universities and national labs with high-speed networks that are 100 - 1000 times faster than today's Internet; to promote experimentation with the next generation of networking technologies and to demonstrate new applications that meet important national goals and missions. The website provides detailed information on the program, president’s address, its potential applications, publications, etc. Federal agencies are currently coordinating advanced networking research programs under the Large Scale Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group. Please see the LSN Website at

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