GEOG 583 Internet Mapping and Distributed GIServices
UNIT THREE (Session One):
Cartography and User Interface Design
Domain Name Update: Who controls the domain names?
(old) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) (US Government contract). http://www.iana.org/gtld/gtld.htm
(current) The New Administration Organization: Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)http://www.icann.org/
InterNIC site. http://www.internic.net/ (InterNIC is a registered service mark of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It is licensed to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, which operates this web site.)
The history of Domain Name System (DNS): http://www.stormy.ca/technology/dns_history.html 1994: "top-level domain names" (TLDs) were the generic TLDs (EDU, COM, NET, ORG, GOV, MIL, and INT), and the two letter country codes from ISO-3166. (Country Codes: http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld-whois.htm )
2000: four new TLDs (.biz, .info, .name, and .pro) "unsponsored" i.e. market supply/demand, and three new TLDs (.aero, .coop, and .museum) "sponsored" or managed by narrow professional/business interests.
Google Street View Car (with Camera), San Diego, CA (Jan 27, 9:30AM, 2011)
Internet Technology and Distributed GIServices
The Internet is a modern information relay system that connects hundreds of thousands of telecommunication networks and creates an "inter-networking" framework. Peng and Tsou, p. 4, Internet GIS.
Any "traditional" information relay systems? (horse, pigeon, telegraph..)
GIS Technology: from a centralized GISystems to Distributed GIServices
The development of GIS technology has evolved from mainframe GIS, to desktop GIS, to Distributed GIS, which includes wired Internet GIS and wireless mobile GIS. The mainframe GIS and the desktop GIS is also traditionally called GISystems, while the distributed GIS is referred to as Distributed GIServices.
Internet2 and NGI
Different from the current Internet, which was developed originally by the U.S. Department of Defense, the Internet2 is a university-led effort to develop advanced network technology and applications. In October 1996, thirty-four of U.S. universities formed the Internet2 Consortium and created the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) to support the Internet2. Currently more than one hundred and seventy universities participate the project and work closely with industry and the federal government. (Susan Fingerman, 1999, Internet2 and Next Generation Internet: Two for the Future, Information Outlook, Nov. 1999
Internet2 FAQ, http://www.internet2.edu
The Internet2 also created a high-speed network infrastructure by connecting over 150 Internet2 universities and institutes as “gigapops” who are connected to high-performance backbone network. Gigapops are the high-bandwith nodes or hub universities which can serve as the portal to various Internet2 applications.
There are two kinds of technologies used in such high-speed backbone. The very high performance Backbond Network Service (vBNS) was developed and supported by National Science Foundation and MCI, which can provide 622M-bps to 2.4G-bps bandwidth communication between two backbone nodes. Another network is the Abliene network (http://abilene.internet2.edu/) supported by UCAID and its partners. Abilence is developed by Qwest, Nortel, and Cisco together and utilize high-speed Sonet facilities to provide connections between Gigapops. The bandwidth of Ablience network is between 2.4G-bps to 9.6G-bps. The two types of backbone infrastructures can be interconnected by vBNS+ (the next generation of vBNS). (Abilene Project: http://abilene.internet2.edu/about/ )
The Next Generation Internet (NGI)
Different from the Internet2 as university-led project, the Next Generation Internet (NGI) is federally-led initiative. (http://www.ngi.gov ) The NGI project was a three year project started in 1997 and ended in 2000 with $300 million commitment. The focus of NGI was the needs of collaboration among federal governments agencies and to connect existing high-speed networks projects within the federal governments, including NSF, NASA, the National Institute of Health, EPA, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, etc.
In 2001, the NGI was replaced by a new project, Large Scale Networking (LSN) which also focus on future network technologies. “The goal of LSN R&D is to provide leadership in network communications through advances in high performance network components; technologies that enable wireless, optical, mobile, and wireline communications; large scale network engineering, management, and services; and systems software and program development environments for network-centric computing” (High Performance Computing and Communication FY-1999-FY2000 Implementation Plan, p. 2, National Coordination Office for Computing, Information, and Communications. http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/ )
National LambdaRail (http://www.nlr.net/ )
The foundation of the NLR infrastructure is a dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM)-based national optical footprint using Cisco Systems' 15808 and 15454 optical electronic systems, with a maximum capacity of 40 and 32 wavelengths per fiber pair respectively. Each wavelength can support transmission at 10 billion bits per second (10 Gbps). This optical system is being deployed nationwide across roughly 10,000 route-miles of dark fiber that NLR has obtained through Level 3 Communications and WilTel Communications. Four NLR wavelengths have been implemented using 10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN PhY (physical layer), a technology and architecture that had previously been limited to metro-area networks. NLR can also support the SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) Technology employed in traditional telecommunications networks, (cited from http://www.nlr.net/infrastructure/ )
(the following paragraphs are cited from the website: http://www.ipv6.org/
IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6". IPv6 is the "next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 ("IPv4").
Most of today's internet uses IPv4, which is now nearly twenty years old. IPv4 has been remarkably resilient in spite of its age, but it is beginning to have problems. Most importantly, there is a growing shortage of IPv4 addresses, which are needed by all new machines added to the Internet.
New Challenges for Cartographers
The Paradigms of Cartography
1. Communication Paradigm (Arthur H. Robinson, 1952)
(Source: Dent, Borden D. 1985. Principles of Thematic Map Design. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., p. 13).
2. Geographic/Cartographic Visualization (GVIS / CVIS) (DiBiase 1990, MacEachren 1994)
|Visualization: The use of graphics to facilitate thinking, problem solving, and decision making;|
|The domains of GVIS: data exploration, visual thinking, revealing unknown spatial patterns.|
(Source: Alan MacEachren, "Visualization in Modern Cartography: Setting the Agenda," in A.M MacEachren and D. R. F. Taylor (eds.). Visualization in Modern Cartography. Oxford, England: Elsevier, 1994. p. 6.)
-high human-map interaction
-focus on private information
-low human-map interaction
-focus on public information
3. New Direction: Web-based maps? , Map-on-demand? , Interactive and Dynamic mapping? , Multimedia Cartography?
The unique features of Internet mapping:
1. Map users become both map authors and map readers. The role of traditional map authors (cartographers) become invisible or replaced by computer programs (such as automatically labeling, symbolizations, and the design of color schemes) and map users themselves. The learning curve and map making experiences from the map users will become the major feedback for improving the design of maps.
2. The use of maps could be applied in both public domains and private domains via the Internet and the World Wide Web. People can use on-line mapping tools to conduct their own private research (maps) and, at the same time, they can save/publish their results back to the public web site and allow other people to access their private research findings. A Web-based map can be used both privately and publicly.
3. Who is the audience? It is more difficult to know who are accessing your Web-based maps now and how much time they are willing to spend on your web maps. Internet users are much more diversified than traditional map readers. Creating user feedback pages and analyzing Web page logs may help us to describe targeted user profiles.
4. Copy maps electronically. The duplication of electronic maps becomes easier and cheaper than traditional paper maps. Map users can download either statistic map pictures or a complete GIS data set for further use. Copyright issue will need to be reconsidered. How to put a "signature" on the electronic maps? How to protect the contents of electronic maps? These questions need to be answered.
What are the differences between paper maps and electronic maps (E-maps)?
Format: paper or transparencies, page size (30cm X 35 cm), Colors or B/W,
Fixed scale (1: 200,000).
Easy to carry.
Expensive procedures for map production and reproduction.
High resolution (1200 dpi) (dpi: dots per inch) = 0.021 mm per dot
Format: (much more complicated than paper maps)
Storage Format: digital media: Disks, CD-ROM, Hard Drive, Tapes.
Graphic Format: GIF, JPEG, PNG, BMP
GIS databases: Vector (Coverages, shapefiles, DLG) and Raster (GRID, GRASS).
Dynamic scale, fixed data accuracy (data uncertainty).
Require computer to display maps. Desktop / Notebook / Pocket-size PC
Easy and inexpensive procedure for map reproduction. (Electronic copy). But the original cost of creating new GIS databases are very high.
Interactive and dynamic representation
Low resolution (LCD or CRT)
Example: 19' CRT: 0.25 mm aperture grille pitch. Resolution: 1800 x 1440
What are the differences between view-only E-maps and interactive E-maps?
View-only E-maps (Pictures):
Map users have no controls on the change of map design and formats. (Picture presentation)
Static pictures and dynamic pictures:
PDF map example: http://map.sdsu.edu/group2001/group5/ibap-8.pdf (map created by Adrienne Perry and Kate Wells).
Interactive E-maps (Map-on-demand):
Map users can change map design and formats.
Google Map http://maps.google.com
What are the differences between standalone E-maps (CD-ROM, Standalone computer software) and network-based E-maps (WWW)?
Standalone E-maps (CD-ROM, GIS packages):
High speed data process and transfer rates (Faster responses)
Centralized Database management
Platform dependent. (UNIX, Windows, Mac)
Expensive to distribute results or update information.
Comprehensive GIS functions and tools.
Network-based E-maps (WWW):
Slower data transfer rate (Ethernet: 10 MB per second; Modern: 56K)
Distributed Database management.
Easier update and disseminate results?
Limited GIS functions, mainly for map display
OLED: organic light-emitting diode, a display device that sandwiches carbon-based films between two charged electrodes, one a metallic cathode and one a transparent anode, usually being glass.
|Faster response time for full motion video|
|Broader operating temperature ranges|
Important Design Issues for Interactive Mapping
(Suzzette Miller, (1999), Chapter 5: Design of Multimedia Mapping Products, Multimedia Cartography edited by Cartwright W., Peterson, M. P. & GArter, G. Springer. p. 51)
1. Setting scale thresholds for map themes. (Simplify map display) not too complicated.(problems in Google Mashup).
Example: California DUI program site maps: http://vision.sdsu.edu/DUI/
2. The use of index maps to provide a synoptic map "view" for map "coverage".
Map View: refers to the portion of the map coverage displayed at a point in time
Map Coverage: refers to the extent of the spatial information contained in a map.
3. Create a hierarchy of map symbols:
First Order Symbols (Foreground):
Second Order Symbol (Background)
Each first order symbol object has associated multimedia content. (identify function, query, hyperlinks) Symbols in multimedia cartography will be used for the access of multimedia content.
The following GIS maps were created by Joey Ying Lee at the HDMA Center.
4. Self-describing symbols and dynamic presentation of content. (Flashing symbols, sound effects)
Unit THREE (Session Two):
The "data" folder in the Z: drive.
(Readings in PDF format are located in the new "data" folder on the Z: drive.)
On-line Forum Discussion
Blackboard URL: https://blackboard.sdsu.edu/
Show your own web page and explain your HTML codes.
User Interface Design
The major difference between traditional cartographic communication and interactive mapping is USER INTERFACE, which bridges the gap between map users and spatial databases.
The role of the map user in the development of maps becomes significantly more important in web-based mapping applications (Figure 2b). The map user can change map content immediately by manipulating a map browser (user interface). An example of this type of manipulation is zooming in and zooming out. The role of the map maker has been transformed into a collaboration of efforts between spatial databases, web map servers, and map browsers. Maps within a web-based mapping application are dynamic objects (pictures or data streams) that can be transferred and requested between web map servers and map browsers.
Therefore, to create a successful web mapping application, all major system components (Databases, Web map servers, and map browsers) need to adopt a UCD approach to ensure that maps generated by these systems are effective in meeting the needs of the map user.
User centered design is one of the major research areas in computer science and human computer interaction (HCI). Many GIS research projects have emphasized the importance of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), user interfaces, and user-centered design approaches (Gould, 1989; Mark and Gould, 1991; Medyckyj-Scott and Hearnshaw, 1993 ; Nyerges et. al, 1995; Peterson, 1999). One major focus area of UCD approaches is design of the user interface. The user interface plays an important role in bridging communication between users and web mapping systems. Similar to the development of computer software, user interface design evolved from command line scripting, macro languages, menu-driven interfaces, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs), to direct manipulation interfaces (Tsou and Buttenfield, 1997; Shneiderman, 1998). The UCD approach can improve the design of user interfaces and provide user-friendly and effective tools for information access and manipulation.
The 1999 ISO Standard 13407, “Human Centered Design for Interactive Systems”, outlines detailed UCD procedures and the importance of UCD methods. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=21197
These procedures and methods focus on the interactive process of system development with user participation and evaluation. This standard illustrates five major steps for the implementation of UCD applications. The first step is the development of a plan with a user-centered focus. The second step is to understand and determine the context of use. The third step is to specify the user and organizational requirements. The fourth step is to produce design solutions. The fifth step is to evaluate the design using established requirements. One important aspect of the ISO 13407 Standard is that each step is part of an iterative loop. For example, the results of the fifth step can be applied to the second step creating an iterative loop of user feedback and revision (ISO, 1999). The iterative process will continue until the objectives are satisfied. For web-based mapping applications, UCD can be used as a set of practical guidelines for design and software implementation processes.
(Modified from the ISO 13407 Model Overview Figure).
Examples of User Interface
1. Command Mode: (ARC/INFO workstation)
2. Menu and Lists (PINE - email browser)
3. Graphic User Interface (GUI) (Macintosh and the "desktop" metaphor)
4. Voice Command:
Voice Command for Windows Mobile
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsmobile/downloads/voicecommand/default.mspx (see high resolution Flash demo).
5. Direct Manipulation and Virtual Reality (Stanford Computer Graphics Laboratory)
This example allows users to naturally manipulate virtual 3D models with both hands on the Responsive Workbench, a tabletop VR device.
6. SONY Play Station Eye Toy: http://www.eyetoy.com/language.html
7. The Nintendo Wii Remote controller: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wii_Remote
Microsoft Kinect with XBOX system.
The device features an "RGB camera, depth sensor and multi-array microphone running proprietary software", which provide full-body 3D motion capture, facial recognition and voice recognition capabilities (from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinect )
You are the "controller".
User Interface for Mapping:
1. ARC/INFO 8 ArcMap
2. ArcView 3.2
3. The Xerox PARC Map Viewer (http://mapweb.parc.xerox.com/map/)
4. GRASSLinks (http://www.regis.berkeley.edu/grasslinks/)
5. Alexandria Digital Library Project (http://alexandria.sdc.ucsb.edu/)
6. The TIGER Map Service, a project sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. (http://tiger.census.gov/)
8. Amazon's http://maps.a9.com/ (This server is no longer available).
Think about the following questions:
What are the differences among these examples?
What kinds of "metaphors" do they use in their interface design?
Who are their users?
What kinds of "services" do they provide on-line?