Back Home Next


Geography of Somalia



  • Somalia is located in North Eastern Africa. It has land area of 637,540 Million Square Kilometer, roughly the size of Texas. Somalia occupies the tip of the region commonly referred to as the "Horn of Africa."  Somalia's terrain consists of mainly plains and highlands.  The weather is hot throughout the year, except at the higher elevations in the Northern part.  Rainfall is sparse, and most of Somalia is a semiarid to arid environment suitable only for nomadic pastoralist, which is practice by half of the population. There is constant threat of drought throughout Somalia. Nomads move from North to South following rains throughout the year. However, due to the ongoing violence, Nomads aren't able to maneuver around the Country.


Source: Google Images





note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2004 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 44.7% (male 1,860,451; female 1,849,484)
15-64 years: 52.7% (male 2,197,572; female 2,176,762)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 94,905; female 125,427) (2004 est.)

Population Growth Rate

3.41% (2004 est.)

Birth rate

46.04 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death Rate

17.3 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Net migration rate

5.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sex Ration

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

infant mortality rate

total: 118.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 127.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 108.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)

life expectancy rate

total population: 47.71 years
male: 46.02 years
female: 49.46 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate

6.91 children born/woman (2004 est.)


noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali

ethnic group

Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)


Sunni Muslim


Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English