AAG  (Association of American Geographer): scientific and educational society aims to promote the researches on  theory, methods, and practice of geography.

ACSM  (American Congress on Surveying and Mapping): explores the new technology of GIS, LIS, GPS, etc..

ASPRS  (The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing): officially incorporate the tag of "The Imaging and Geospatial Information Society", aims to promote the scientific research on remote sensing.

CaGIS  (Cartography and Geographic Information Society): serve as the primary focal point in the United States for individuals interested in cartography and geographic information related professions.

FGDC  (Federal Geographic Data Committee): an interagency committee to promote the coordinated use, sharing, and dissemination of geospatial data on a national basis. 

GIS  (Geoscience Information Society): aims to facilitate the exchange of information in the geosciences through cooperation among scientists, librarians, editors, cartographers, educators, and information professionals. 

GITA  (Geographic Information Technology Association): aims to provide a variety of information and useful references for professional and technical needs.

NCGIA  (National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis): an independent research consortium dedicated to basic research and education in geographic information science and its related technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS).

NSDI  (National Spatial Data Infrastructure): coordinated by FGDC, aims to reduce duplication of effort among agencies, improve quality and reduce costs related to geographic information, to make geographic data more accessible to the public.

NOAA  (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): aims to describe and predict changes in the Earth's environment, and conserve and wisely manage the Nation's coastal and marine resources.

OGC  (Open GIS Consortium): promotes benefits from geographic information and services made available across any network, application, or platform.

Society for conversation GIS: aims to facilitate cooperation and information exchange between individuals who apply geographic information systems (GIS) for the conservation of the world's resources.

UCGIS  (University Consortium of Geographic Information Science ):  a non-profit organization of universities and other research institutions dedicated to advancing our understanding of geographic processes and spatial relationships through improved theory, methods, technology, and data.

USGS-GIS: provide introduction on the GIS.


On-Line Learning:

GIS Self Learning Tool: provides general knowledge of GISystem, including theory, examples, interaction, test with feedback.

GIS tutorial: provides the basic knowledge of GISystem, digital data model, etc.

Remote Sensing Core Curriculum: provides on-line education of remote sensing, digital image processing, etc.

NCGIA Core Curriculum (1990 version): provides fundamental lectures notes concerning with concepts, components and applications of GIS. 

NCGIA Core Curriculum (current version): provides lectures notes on concepts, components and applications of GIScience.

ESRI Virtual Campus: offers a variety courses on GIS application and technology.

Tutorial on Representing Spatial Knowledge: provides introduction on representing and reasoning with spatial knowledge, i.e., shape, size, relative position, connectivity.


GeoData Clearinghouse:

Geospatial Data Cleaninghouse:  ( sponsored by Federal Geographic Data Committee) search more than 100 spatial data servers that offer digital geographic data primarily for use in GIS, image processing system, and other modeling software. 

Geography Network: (sponsored by ESRI)  serves the needs of users who wish to share geographic dataset. Users can register datasets for use by others, and also search the archive for useful data. 

National Geographic Data Center: (sponsored by NOAA): provides data  and services to users worldwide in NOAA's environmental research and stewardship.

National Environment Satellite, Data and Information Services: (sponsored by NOAA) provides timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, and enhance the Nation's economy, security, environment, and quality of life.

Terrasever site: provides access to a large store of imagery and digital orthophotogrphy.


Internet GIS:

GeoJava Conner: Provides the digital, internet GIS resources by using Java programming. 




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Department of Geography, San Diego State University